Stroke

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Stroke?

This condition, which represents one of the leading causes of death and disability in adults, occurs when brain blood flow stops, and its cells begin to die as they no longer receive the oxygen necessary for their proper functioning. A stroke is an extremely serious event that requires urgent medical attention, since every minute, from the onset of symptoms to treatment, is essential to reduce brain damage and other complications. The main risk factors are diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, dyslipidemia, genetics, smoking, and COVID-19, among others. If you or a family member suffers from any of these diseases, it is necessary to have regular medical check-ups to prevent the occurrence of a stroke. There are two types of strokes:
  • Ischemic: it is the most frequent and is due to an obstruction or blockage of blood flow in the brain vessels.
  • Hemorrhagic: caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, causing an intracerebral hemorrhage, mainly due to uncontrolled hypertension. They can also be caused by the rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformations, producing a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Symptoms

It is vitally important to know the symptoms of a stroke to act in time, which consists of:
  • Numbness or tingling on one side of the face.
  • Weakness in one arm or the legs.
  • Problems speaking or understanding spoken language.
  • Sudden, severe headache, which may include vomiting, dizziness, or loss of consciousness.
  • Loss of balance or walking coordination.
  • Blurred or clouded vision.
If you notice any signs or symptoms of a stroke, regardless of whether they are intermittent, go immediately to the ABC Medical Center Emergency Room, because in these cases time is brain, and the faster you act, the fewer chances of brain damage and disability. Potential risks: A stroke can cause temporary or permanent disabilities related to the damaged part of the brain and the duration without blood flow to which the brain was exposed, which may be:
  • Behavioral and self-care habits changes.
  • Difficulty speaking or swallowing.
  • Pain, numbness, or tingling in certain areas of the body.
  • Paralysis or movement limitations.
  • Reasoning and memory problems.
  • Radical mood swings.
  • Depression.

Diagnosis and treatment

Upon arrival at the Emergency Room, a medical team will perform, in addition to a physical examination, a series of diagnostic tests that allow them to determine the type of stroke that is occurring, including blood tests, cerebral angiography, echocardiography, MRI, computed tomography, and ultrasound of the carotid arteries. Once the diagnosis has been established, the treatment to be followed will be determined, depending on the cause and type of stroke, the affected area, and its severity. In ischemic strokes, intravenous medications and endovascular procedures are required, while in hemorrhagic strokes, drugs and surgery will be used to stop the bleeding, extract the blood, and release pressure from the brain. In both cases, once the damage has been controlled, it is essential to start as soon as possible with a rehabilitation program that must be personalized and designed according to the disability presented, which must be modified according to the patient’s evolution. The rehabilitation program basically consists of the following therapies:
  • Cognitive.
  • Swallowing.
  • Language.
  • Play therapy.
  • Physical.
  • Occupational.
At the Neurological Center, a select group of highly trained and certified doctors in the various neurological specialties is ready to assist you with the quality and warmth that characterizes us. Nervous system specialties
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Spine surgery
  • Pediatric neurosurgery
  • Neurophysiology
  • Neuro-rehabilitation
  • Neuro-pathology
  • Interventional neuro-radiology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Neuro-oncology
  • Neuro-otology
  • Epilepsy
  • Neuro-ophthalmology
  • Neuroimaging

Fuentes:

  • stroke.org
  • mayocilinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • msdmanuals.com
  • texasheart.org
  • medigraphic.com
  • Venegas RR, Hernández PW, Chacón MD, et al. Ictus en pacientes geriátricos ingresados en una sala de cuidados intermedios de medicina. Rev Cub Med Mil. 2020;49(3):.
  • Martínez-Misa P, González-González Y, Alonso-Calvete A, et al. Efectos de la imaginería motora tras accidente cerebrovascular. Arch Neurocien. 2021;26(2):40-45.
  • Noa PBY, Torres AM, Nodarse RJ. Terapia robótica en la rehabilitación del miembro superior hemipléjico en pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular. Revista de Ciencias Médicas de la Habana. 2021;28(1):132-141.
  • Lescay BD, Téllez GG, Fong OM, et al. Caracterización de pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular en un servicio de emergencias de Santiago de Cuba. MediSan. 2020;24(03):420-430.

						
The dissemination of the content of this material is for informational purposes only and does not replace, under any circumstance or condition, a consultation with a specialist doctor, for which the ABC Medical Center is not responsible for the different use that may be given to it. If you require more information related to the subject, we suggest you contact the specialist doctor you trust directly.