Anorexia nervosa

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Anorexia nervosa?

It is a multifactorial eating condition in which the patients mistakenly perceive themselves as being overweight, even though their weight is extremely low, developing an excessive fear of gaining weight. Due to this, anorexics try to have the weight and appearance that, in their distorted vision of reality, are ideal, becoming an obsession that significantly affects their quality of life and which can have fatal consequences. To continue losing weight, those affected, who are usually women, eat tiny amounts of food, and even take laxatives and diuretics, as well as make themselves vomit after eating something for fear of gaining weight. In addition, they can exercise excessively to avoid the accumulation of calories. The direct causes of anorexia are unknown, but it has been established that it is due to psychological, biological, and social issues, where the affected person confuses extreme thinness with their value as a person, creating an equation where thinness is synonymous with self-esteem. As with other eating disorders, anorexia can become a serious problem, affecting their lives at all levels, which is why it is important to see a specialist to receive immediate treatment and return to a healthy diet, change their self-perception, and avoid serious complications such as:
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Sarcopenia.
  • Gastrointestinal alterations.
  • Electrolyte deficiencies.
  • Kidney failure.
  • Anemia.
  • Arrhythmias.
  • Heart failure.
  • Mitral valve prolapse.
  • Death.
  • Depressive episodes.
  • Anxiety.
  • Personality disorders.
  • Alcoholism and drug addiction.
  • Suicide.

Symptoms

The symptoms have two aspects: Physical:
  • Arrhythmias.
  • Hypotension.
  • Dehydration.
  • Edema in feet and ankles.
  • Insomnia.
  • Dizziness and loss of consciousness
  • Fingers with shades of blue.
  • Hair loss.
  • Progressive decrease in body weight.
  • Blood abnormalities.
  • Tiredness and weakness.
  • Lack of menstruation
  • Constipation.
  • Abdominal cramps.
  • Dry skin.
  • Hypersensitivity to low temperatures.
Psychological:
  • Minimize food consumption.
  • Perform strenuous physical activities.
  • Social isolation.
  • Anger.
  • Insomnia.
  • Inducing vomiting after eating.
  • Pretend not to be hungry.
  • Avoid eating in public
  • Long fasts.
  • Lack of sexual desire.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once your doctor analyzes your symptoms and clinical history, they will perform a physical examination and a psychological evaluation, in addition to requesting blood and urine tests, bone densitometry, electrocardiogram, and X-rays. The treatment to be followed includes attention to physical complications, psychotherapy, dietary advice, and medications, so a multidisciplinary team will be aware of your evolution, following up on the treatment. At the Neurological Center, a select group of highly trained and certified doctors in the various neurological specialties are ready to assist you with the quality and warmth that characterizes us. Nervous system specialties 
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Spine surgery
  • Pediatric neurosurgery
  • Neurophysiology
  • Neuro-rehabilitation
  • Neuro-pathology
  • Interventional neuro-radiology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Neuro-oncology
  • Neuro-otology
  • Epilepsy
  • Neuro-ophthalmology
  • Neuroimaging

Fuentes:

  • clevelandclinic.org
  • topdoctors.es
  • mayocilinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • niddk.nih.gov
  • medigraphic.com
  • Bermúdez DLV, Chacón SMA, Rojas SDM. Actualización en trastornos de conducta alimentaria: anorexia y bulimia nerviosa. Revista Médica Sinergia. 2021;6(08):1-11.
  • Carmenate RID. Anorexia nerviosa. Presentación de un caso. Mul Med. 2020;24(1):169-180.
  • Morales AMF, Galván SG. Características clínicas de anorexia nervosa extrema. Rev Fac Med UNAM. 2021;64(2):26-30.
  • Granja MA, Pérez MV, Gempeler RJ, et al. Anorexia nerviosa secundaria a un trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo con síntomas de escrupulosidad predominante en un hombre adulto. Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios. 2017;8(2):185-192.

						
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