ABC Medical Center > Bladder cancer

What is Bladder cancer?

13:47 - 9 April , 2021


It refers to the uncontrolled replication of malignant cells in the bladder, which produces tumors and various health consequences. There are tumors limited to the bladder area, while others spread invading surrounding tissues and organs.

Main causes:

  • Smoking.
  • Having a relative who has had bladder cancer.
  • Being a carrier of the human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Environmental factors.

Signs and symptoms Bladder cancer

  • Blood in the urine (hematuria).
  • Constant urinary tract infections.
  • Excessive urination.
  • Pain and burning when urinating.

Diagnosis and treatment Bladder cancer

  • Blood chemistry and urine test; to analyze the presence of blood in urine and detect malignant cells.
  • Cystoscopy; to analyze the presence of polyps and/or to perform a biopsy.
  • Chest tomography and MRI of the abdomen and pelvis, to assess the extent of the cancer.
  • Ultrasound of the urinary tract and the abdominal area; to assess the size, shape, and function of various organs such as the bladder and kidneys. 

Based on your medical history, your general condition, the type of cancer, and its progress, the ABC doctor will decide on the optimal treatment for you.

Surgery to remove the tumor is usually the main option, although you may also need chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy to destroy malignant cells, reduce the size of the tumor, and improve symptoms.


  • Choong NWW, Quevedo JF, Kaur JS. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The Mayo Clinic experience. Cancer. 2005;103(6):1172– 8. doi: 10.1002/cncr.20903
  • Reyna-Blanco I, Jiménez-García A, Martínez-Salas A, et al. Tumores de vejiga no uroteliales, como reto diagnóstico y terapéutico. Rev Mex Urol. 2019;79(4):1-8.
  • Ploeg M, Aben KK, Hulsbergen-van de Kaa CA, Schoenberg MP, Witjes JA, Kiemeney LA. Clinical epidemiology of nonurothelial bladder cancer: analysis of the Netherlands Cancer Registry. J Urol. 2010;183(3):915–20. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.11.018.

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