ABC Medical Center > Bunions

What is Bunions?

21:55 - 4 May , 2021


They are a protruding bony mass or lump that develops on the inside of the foot, in the big toe joint, causing the tip of that toe to turn towards the little toes, causing the joint to stand out. Bunions can also occur in the little toes’ joint.

Although the cause of their formation, also known as hallux valgus, is unknown, there are several factors that can contribute to their appearance, including:

  • Arthritis.
  • Genetic abnormalities.
  • Foot injuries.
  • Hereditary foot problems.
  • Use of high-heeled shoes.
  • Tight footwear.

Signs and symptoms Bunions

Characteristic symptoms include:

  • Appearance of a visible lump on the inside of the foot.
  • Calluses that appear on the first and second toes.
  • Permanent or intermittent pain.
  • Redness and swelling around the joint of the big toe.
  • Stiffness or decreased movement of the big toe, making it difficult to walk.

If you have these symptoms, it is important that you visit an orthopedist to assess your case and indicate the steps to follow.

Possible complications:

  • Toe deformation.
  • Bursitis: inflammation of the bursa between the bone and the joint.
  • Metatarsalgia: metatarsal pain.

Diagnosis and treatment Bunions

Once your doctor analyzes your symptoms and medical history, they will perform a detailed physical examination of the foot and the affected area and will also request an X-ray of the foot to define the severity.

Treatment focuses on relieving pain and inflammation and preserving mobility, through:

  • Painkillers and anti-inflammatories, as well as injected cortisone.
  • Cryotherapy to relieve inflammation.
  • Orthopedic insoles that protect the affected areas and facilitate feet movement.
  • Comfortable and wide shoes.

In extreme cases, you may require surgery to:

  • Adjust the bones to correct the angle of the joint.
  • Remove part of the bone to repair the big toe physiology.
  • Remove the inflamed tissue that surrounds the joint.
  • Link the bones of the joint.

It is important that you follow your doctor’s recommendations to avoid the subsequent appearance of another bunion. You can prevent the formation of bunions with the use of wide and comfortable shoes that give adequate space to the fingers, no footwear should press or squeeze the feet.

At the Orthopedics and Traumatology Center we seek to improve the lives of patients restricted or immobilized by musculoskeletal disorders or injuries. We specialize in the care of the locomotor system by integrating the latest medical, biological, and technological advances, in strict adherence to the highest international standards of patient care.

We put our skills and knowledge at your service to provide you and your loved ones with cutting-edge treatments and highly specialized medical care in the following procedures:

  • Arthroscopic surgery.
  • Partial and total joint replacement surgery (prostheses).
  • Trauma surgery.
  • Hand surgery.
  • Foot and ankle surgery.
  • Spinal surgery.


  • orthoinfo.aaos.org
  • clevelandclinic.org/
  • medlineplus.gov
  • mayoclinic.org
  • medigraphic.com
  • Agreda-Santana AJ, Díaz-CarballedaJD, Rodríguez-RamosA. Evaluación de resultados radiográficos en población geriátrica con hallux valgus grado moderado a severo intervenido con técnica quirúrgica de Lelièvre y Vidalot. Acta Ortop Mex. 2019;33(6):362-364. doi:10.35366/93341.
  • Vélez-de Lachica JC, Valdez-Jiménez LA, Inzunza-Sánchez JM. Evaluación clínica y radiográfica de una nueva técnica percutánea para la corrección de la deformidad en hallux valgus moderada a severa . Acta Ortop Mex. 2017;31(4):171-176.
  • Lorie AD,J, Lorie RR, et al. Alternativa de corrección quirúrgica del Hallux Valgus en la adolescencia y adultez temprana. Invest Medicoquir. 2017;9(1):39-50.
  • Vega FE. Tratamiento quirúrgico del Hallux Valgus moderado y severo: osteotomía metatarsiana proximal y liberación distal de partes blandas. Revista Cubana de Ortopedia y Traumatología. 2015;29(1):40-49.

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