Cataracts

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Cataracts?

It is an eye condition in which the eye’s lens tissue becomes opaque, making it difficult to see by making it cloudy and blurry.

In a high percentage of cases, cataracts have a slow evolution, so in their early stages they do not represent visual disturbances, but as the disorder progresses, it affects the visual capacity to a greater extent, making a surgical procedure essential to eliminate them and regain normal vision.

Many times, cataracts are usually the result of age or an injury that damages or transforms the eye tissue, as well as the effect of diseases such as diabetes and arthritis, or prolonged intake of corticosteroids.

They usually develop in both eyes, but their degree of progress is variable, so the visual capacity of one and the other is different.

Cataract classification:

  • Congenital: of genetic origin or as an effect of certain diseases such as rubella.
  • Nuclear: affects the center of the lens.
  • Cortical: appears at the edges of the lens.
  • Posterior subcapsular: develops on the back of the lens.

Symptoms

  • Headache.
  • Eye pain.
  • Condition that makes vision cloudy or blurry.
  • Night vision problems.
  • Photosensitivity.
  • Formation of auras in illuminated objects or people.
  • Constant changes in glasses or contact lenses prescription.

Potential risks:

  • High blood pressure.
  • Eye injuries.
  • Eye surgeries.
  • Prolonged intake of corticosteroids.
  • Old age.
  • Diabetes.
  • Long-term exposure to sunlight.
  • Smoking.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Overweight and obesity.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once your ophthalmologist analyzes your symptoms and clinical history, he or she will perform a comprehensive eye exam where your visual acuity will be measured and will observe in detail the morphology of your eyes (including the retina and the lens) with a special microscope called a slit lamp.

The treatment indicated for cataracts that do not seriously affect vision is the use of prescription glasses, but if your case is serious and the cataracts do not allow you to see properly, hindering your daily activities, the only alternative is surgery.

There are several types of surgery depending on your specific case, the degree of progress, and the type of cataract. Your ophthalmologist will tell you which one is the most suitable for you.

At ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • topdoctors.es
  • medlineplus.gov
  • mayoclinic.org
  • aao.org
  • cun.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • Santiesteban RY, Cruz BA, López CA, et al. Caracterización clínica de la catarata senil en pacientes del policlínico Pedro del Toro, Holguín, 2017. Correo Científico Médico. 2020;24(1):.
  • Di-Luciano A, Montero M, Chewerk H. Validez de constructo del uso de realidad virtual en la cirugía de cataratas: revisión sistemática. Simulación Clínica. 2020;2(2):71-80. doi:10.35366/95231.
  • Hernández RH, Hernández SJR, Ramos LM, et al. Evaluación de la efectividad en la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación bilateral simultánea versus facoemulsificación bilateral secuencial. Rev Cub Oftal. 2019;32(2):1-16.
  • Bauza FY, Veitía RZA, Cuan AY, et al. Manejo actual de la endoftalmitis posterior a la cirugía de catarata. Rev Cub Oftal. 2018;31(4):45-53.

						
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