Craniosynostosis

21:54 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Craniosynostosis?

It is a congenital anomaly in which the cranial sutures, which are joint tissues that assemble the baby's skull, come together before the brain has fully developed, which means that, by reducing the space and as the brain continues to grow, the head becomes misshapen.  The origin of craniosynostosis has not yet been identified, but it is known to be related to genetic abnormalities, environmental issues or are part of various syndromes’ symptoms, so it is classified as: 
  • Non-syndromic: it is the most frequent and is due to genetic and environmental factors.
  • Syndromic: generated by syndromes such as Apert's, Pfeiffer's, or Crouzon's, which hinders correct cranial development.
It is possible to reverse the damage caused by craniosynostosis through a surgical procedure that fixes the head deformity and allows the brain to develop normally. Therefore, it must be diagnosed and treated promptly, since, otherwise, there may be neurological effects.

Symptoms

The characteristic symptoms are usually easy to detect at birth, but sometimes it is not so evident and is identified in the following months, including: 
  • Cranial deformity whose magnitude depends on the number of abnormal sutures.
  • Formation of a hard bump on the damaged sutures.
  • The head stops growing or grows slower than the rest of the body.
  • Closure of the cranial fontanelle.
Types: The classification is based on the number of sutures affected, being more frequent those that only damage one, although there are also those involving multiple sutures. Due to their location, they are divided into: 
  • Sagittal.
  • Coronal. 
  • Metopic. 
  • Lambdoid. 
A serious complication is increased intracranial pressure, which can cause: 
  • Developmental delay.
  • Cognitive problems.
  • Weakness.
  • Apathy.
  • Loss of sight.
  • Seizures.
  • Risk of death.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once the pediatric neurologist analyzes your child's symptoms, they will perform a comprehensive physical examination focusing on cranial morphology. In addition, they will request imaging studies such as computed tomography and MRI to locate the fused sutures. If an underlying condition is suspected, genetic testing will be done to determine if the craniosynostosis is due to a syndrome. The treatment to follow is usually corrective surgery, although depending on the severity of the case, several procedures may be required to get the head to take its normal shape, considering if there is any genetic syndrome causing the craniosynostosis. At the Neurological Center, a select group of highly trained and certified doctors in the various neurological specialties are ready to assist you with the quality and warmth that characterizes us. Nervous system specialties
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Spine surgery
  • Pediatric neurosurgery
  • Neurophysiology
  • Neuro-rehabilitation
  • Neuro-pathology
  • Interventional neuro-radiology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Neuro-oncology
  • Neuro-otology
  • Epilepsy
  • Neuro-ophthalmology
  • Neuroimaging

Fuentes:

  • stanfordchildrens.org
  • topdoctors.es
  • mayocilinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • msdmanuals.com
  • medigraphic.com
  • Rodríguez NP, Dena EEJ, Hernández GA, et al. Craneosinostosis multisutural del tipo cráneo en trébol o Kleeblattschädel y otras craneosinostosis. Anales de Radiología México. 2007;6(3):219-231.
  • Dávalos-Ruiz E, Haro-Acosta ME, Soria-Rodríguez CG, et al. Manejo quirúrgico de craneosinostosis en hospital de segundo nivel. Experiencia de 5 años. Rev Mex Neuroci. 2018;19(1):117-126.
  • Miranda VJE, Esquivel MS, Guzmán OFJ, et al. Craneosinostosis no sindrómica: revisión de la literatura y reporte de un caso clínico. Rev Mex Cir Bucal Maxilofac. 2017;13(3):76-82.
  • Carrillo-Córdova JR, Malagón-Hidalgo H. Expansión de la bóveda posterior en el tratamiento de las craneosinostosis sindrómicas. Cir Plast. 2017;27(2):84-90.

						
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