Cystitis

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Cystitis?

It refers to bladder inflammation, commonly caused by a bacterial infection in the urinary tract, which can cause pain and discomfort when urinating. It must be taken care of to prevent the infection from spreading to the kidneys and causing a bigger problem.

Occasionally, cystitis can be a consequence of other underlying diseases, the effect of certain drugs, radiotherapy, or some irritating personal hygiene products.

Women, due to their anatomy, are more prone to frequent bladder and urinary tract infections, mainly those who are sexually active, pregnant, use a diaphragm as a contraceptive method, or are undergoing menopause.

Urinary tract infections are classified according to the place where they occur, dividing into:

  • Lower tract infections: cystitis, urethritis, and prostatitis.
  • Upper tract infections: pyelonephritis, nephritis, intrarenal abscess, and perinephrial abscess.

There are two types of cystitis, infectious and non-infectious. And there are several types of the latter:

  • Interstitial: is a chronic inflammation of the bladder whose cause is unknown. 
  • By radiation: those who have received radiotherapy are more likely to develop cystitis as a side effect.
  • Medicinal: caused by the intake of some drugs. 
  • Due to foreign bodies: having a catheter for a long time usually causes inflammation due to injury to the tissues.
  • Chemical: allergy to some personal hygiene products. 
  • Related to other abnormalities: diabetes, kidney stones, or prostatitis, among others.

Symptoms

Among the most common symptoms are:

  • Burning when urinating.
  • Low back pain.
  • High fever.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Pelvic pain.
  • Permanent need to urinate even a little.
  • Urine that is not very transparent and with an intense aroma. 
  • Tightness in the lower abdominal region.
  • Hematuria.

If you have any or several of these symptoms, go to your doctor as soon as possible to get checked and indicate the adequate treatment to avoid kidney infection. 

Diagnosis and treatment

After analyzing your symptoms and clinical history, your doctor will order a series of tests to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions that could contribute to your discomfort.

The tests will depend on the infection area and your symptoms, but the most frequent are:

  • Urine tests to detect infectious agents.
  • Urine, vaginal fluid, or urethral fluid cultures to define the type of bacteria that is causing the infection and the antibiotics that may be effective in fighting it. 
  • Cystoscopy to observe the urethra and the bladder.
  • Abdominal ultrasound to check the abdomen.
  • Urography to observe the kidneys’ condition.

The treatment to follow will depend on the type of cystitis. Bacterial cystitis is treated with antibiotics, but in case the infection is due to an obstruction, you will likely require surgery to eliminate it or correct some physical abnormality in the uterus or the bladder.

Prevention:

You can help reduce the risk of cystitis if:

  • You are cautious with the use of condoms and spermicidal creams.
  • You avoid douching.
  • You urinate after each intercourse.
  • You use lubricants during sexual intercourse.
  • You wear clothes made of natural fabrics, preferably cotton.

In ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • wnyurology.com
  • mayoclinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • cinfasalud.cinfa.com
  • topdoctors.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • Víquez VM, Chacón GC, Rivera FS. Infecciones del tracto urinario en mujeres embarazadas. Revista Médica Sinergia. 2020;5(05):482-482.
  • Cuéllar SN, Otero PIC, Peña MH. Cistitis glandular. Presentación de un caso. Medisur. 2017;15(4):545-549.
  • Custodio GCD, Pérez-Huitrón MA. Cistitis enfisematosa. Rev Mex Urol. 2019;79(2):1-2.
  • Solano MA, Solano CA, Ramírez VX. Actualización del manejo de infecciones de las vías urinarias no complicadas. Revista Médica Sinergia. 2020;5(02):356-356.

						
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