Dengue fever

21:54 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Dengue fever?

It is a viral infection that is transmitted through mosquito bites, mainly in tropical areas, most of the time in urban areas or with a certain degree of urbanization.  The contagion mechanism begins when a mosquito bites someone who already has the virus, infecting the insect, which, in turn, will bite other people, infecting them by depositing the virus in their blood.  As with any virus, infection does not imply symptoms, but it is estimated that one in four people infected with dengue fever develops the disease, with pregnant women and babies being at greater risk of suffering from it.

Symptoms

There is a wide spread of symptoms from mild to severe.  In the first case, the generality of the symptoms makes diagnosis difficult because they can be confused with other conditions:
  • High intensity migraine.
  • Pain in the eye sockets.
  • Muscle and joint pain.
  • High fever.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Rash.
Serious cases:
  • Weakness and tiredness.
  • Fast breathing and trouble breathing.
  • Severe stomach pain.
  • Excessive vomiting accompanied by blood.
  • Nosebleeds or bleeding in the oral cavity. 
  • Blood in urine and feces.
  • Bleeding under the epidermis.
The symptoms generally appear between five and 10 days after being infected, but it is important to be aware of the symptoms to treat them promptly and thus avoid high-risk complications such as hemorrhagic fever or shock. Therefore, if you have any of the aforementioned symptoms, go immediately to the ABC Emergency Room.

Diagnosis and treatment

The doctor, in addition to reviewing your medical history and physically examining you, will ask you to explain where you have been in recent weeks, if you traveled to tropical places or areas with a high presence of mosquitoes.  Likewise, he or she will ask you for a blood test to confirm the existence of one of the four types of virus that cause dengue fever and rule out the spread of other similar ones such as the one that causes Zika and chikungunya.  So far, there is no specific treatment for dengue, but if your case is mild, your doctor will prescribe painkillers, anti-inflammatories, and fever medicine, as well as tell you to drink plenty of fluids and rest. You will be fully recovered in 15 days following these indications.  When it comes to a severe case, you will likely require:
  • Hospitalization.
  • Saline solution. 
  • Blood transfusion.
  • Blood pressure control.
Once recovered, your body will develop long-term immunity to the type of virus that infected you, but not to the other three that cause dengue fever.  Remember that you must act immediately before any of the symptoms appear; timely detection and treatment significantly reduce the mortality rates of this disease. Prevention: When traveling to countries or regions with a high incidence of dengue fever, it is recommended that you:
  • Get the dengue fever vaccine before you travel.
  • Use mosquito repellent. 
  • Wear clothes that do not expose arms and legs.
In ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes: 

  • medlineplus.gov
  • imss.gob.mx
  • mayoclinic.org
  • cds.gov
  • eliminatedengue.com
  • medigraphic.com
  • Martín-Hernández T, León-Ramentol CC, Betancourt-Bethencourt JA, et al. Caracterización del comportamiento clínico y de laboratorio de pacientes con sospecha de dengue. AMC. 2020;24(3):311-314.
  • Tamayo EOE, García OTM, Escobar YNV, et al. Caracterización clinicoepidemiológica de pacientes con dengue ingresados en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí. MediSan. 2020;24(04):653-668.
  • Zamora-Ramírez MG, Espínola Latournerie-Cerino ME, Sánchez-López AR, et al. El impacto del cambio climático en la prevalencia del Dengue en México. Sal Jal. 2020;7(3):156-163.
  • Ortigoza CGM, Lorandi MAP. Mexican mathematics and its fight against Dengue: Achievements and challenges. Rev Mex Med Forense. 2020;5(4):35-60.
The dissemination of the content of this material is for informational purposes only and does not replace, under any circumstance or condition, a consultation with a specialist doctor, for which the ABC Medical Center is not responsible for the different use that may be given to it. If you require more information related to the subject, we suggest you contact the specialist doctor you trust directly.