ABC Medical Center > Padecimientos > Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus

21:54 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Diabetes insipidus?

It is a low-incidence pathology that alters the balance of fluid levels in the body which manifests with frequent and abundant urination, as well as excessive thirst despite constantly hydrating. This is because the kidneys have a dysfunction caused by hormonal issues that affect their ability to retain water and salt in the body.

The amount of water excreted in the urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone, or vasopressin, which is developed in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. This hormone allows the fluid filtered by the kidneys to return to the blood, but if it is decreased or absent, large amounts of urine are generated.

Diabetes insipidus, which is not related to diabetes mellitus, is classified as:

  • Central: appears due to genetic problems or damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus due to a brain tumor or injury, altering the production of antidiuretic hormone.
  • Gestational: occurs during pregnancy when an enzyme from the placenta breaks down the mother’s antidiuretic hormone.
  • Nephrogenic: arises from a renal morphological abnormality that cannot respond to antidiuretic hormone.
  • Dipsogenic: caused by a condition that regulates thirst in the hypothalamus, although it is also related to schizophrenia or other mental disorders.

Symptoms

  • Changes in skin elasticity.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Dehydration.
  • Frequent night urination.
  • Very dilute and pale urine.
  • Taste for frozen drinks.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Excessive thirst.
  • Excessive urine volume.

Potential risks:

  • Electrolyte imbalance, causing weakness, cramps, confusion, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Dehydration.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once your doctor analyzes your symptoms and medical history, they will perform a physical examination, urine tests, and various tests to determine the type of diabetes insipidus you have and the possible cause, including:

  • Genetic analysis.
  • Water deprivation test.

MRI.

This pathology has no cure, but treatments help reduce symptoms, which will be based on the type of diabetes insipidus you suffer from, but the most common elements are:

  • Anti-inflammatories.
  • Oral vasopressin, or through the skin or the nose.
  • Reduce fluid intake to balance diuresis.
  • Low-sodium diet to reduce the amount of urine produced by the kidneys.

At ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • hormone.org
  • mayoclinic.org
  • medlinesplus.gov
  • msdmanuals.com
  • cigna.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • Muiños MC, Rodríguez CI. Diabetes insípida y virus del Zika. Rev Cuba Endoc. 2020;31(3):1-9.
  • Velásquez UJC, Campuzano MG, Alfaro VJM. Diabetes insipidus: overview and diagnosis in pediatric patients. Medicina & Laboratorio. 2013;19(07-08):353-380.
  • Contreras-Perusquía Y, Olivares-Schietekat S, Córdoba-Ostos E, et al. Central diabetes insipidus due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Med Int Mex. 2019;35(4):638-645.
  • del Carpio-Orantesa L. Diabetes insípida central transitoria asociada a embarazo. Reporte de caso y revisión de bibliografía. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2017;55(5):672-675.

						
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