Heart attack or acute myocardial infarction

12:39 - 9 April , 2021

Disease

What is Heart attack or acute myocardial infarction?

It refers to the sudden lack of blood circulation in a specific area of the heart due to the blockage of one of the coronary arteries. It is estimated that, worldwide, this condition takes the lives of almost 1.8 million people annually, being one of the main causes of mortality in adults over 20 years old.

Symptoms

An acute myocardial infarction is a medical emergency. Go immediately to the ABC Medical Center Emergency Room in the event of any of these symptoms:
  • Pain or pressure in the arms or chest. Usually the pain is continuous and lasts for more than 20 minutes.
  • Nausea, vomiting, pain, or burning in the stomach.
  • A feeling of suffocation.
  • Cold sweat.
  • Tiredness.
  • Dizziness.
  • Anxiety.
  • Agitation and palpitations.
However, not all heart attack cases have the same symptoms and, furthermore, their intensity varies.  Main causes:
  • The risk increases after turning 45. 
  • High blood pressure damages the coronary arteries.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Obesity causes high cholesterol and triglycerides, hypertension, and diabetes. 
  • Smoking.
  • Stress.
  • Drug addiction.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnostic studies:
  • Cardiac ultrasound and MRI: Used to see the size, shape, and function of the heart.
  • Electrocardiogram and blood tests: these are used to identify a heart attack or damaged areas of the heart. 
  • Angiography: to analyze blood flow in the heart.
  • Stress test: in order to monitor the heart during physical exercise. 
The best option to prevent a heart attack is to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This means keeping an optimal body weight, eating a healthy and balanced diet, minimizing alcohol and coffee intake, managing stress, exercising, and quitting smoking. To reduce the risk of a recurrent heart attack and maintain proper heart function, you need to take the medications prescribed by your cardiologist and have recommended follow-up tests as often as suggested.  At the Cardiovascular Center we offer you a wide range of prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and follow-up services to take care of you through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary care model. Come to us, we want to hear your heart.

Fuentes: 

  • sociedad mexicana de cardiología
  • sociedad española de cardiología
  • fundación mexicana del corazón
  • texasheart.org
  • medigraphic.com
  • Guía clínica de atención al paciente con infarto agudo al miocardio. Centro Médico ABC
  • mayoclinic.org
  • Gómez PR. Formas clínicas de presentación del infarto agudo al miocardio. Medicentro. 2014;18(4):174-176.
  • Hartley A, Marshall DC, Salciccioli JD, Sikkel MB, Maruthappu M, Shalhoub J. Trends in mortality from ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Europe: 1980 to 2009. Circulation. 2016;133(20):1916-26. [Consultado 2021 enero 7] Disponible en: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27006480
  • Hernández Chisholm D, González Méndez BM, Méndez Pérez Y, Arbelo Figueredo C, Estévez Perera A, Porro Novo J. Protocolo de actuación de rehabilitación cardiovascular en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria aguda. Revista Cubana de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación 2017 9(1):1-15. [Consultado 2021 enero 7]  Disponible en: https://www.medigraphic.com/cgi-bin/new/resumen.cgi?IDARTICULO=75122
  • Santos Medina M, Barreiro García A, García González RC, Barreiro Noa AE. Factores de riesgo de mortalidad hospitalaria post infarto agudo de miocardio. Rev Cubana Cardiol Cir Cardiovasc. 2017;23(3):1-16. [Consultado 2021 enero 7] Disponible en: https://www.medigraphic.com/cgi-bin/new/resumenI.cgi?IDREVISTA=299&IDARTICULO=76227&IDPUBLICACION=7385
  • Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JG, Coats AJ. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(27):2129-2200. [Consultado 2021 enero 7] Disponible en: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27206819
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