Hypercalcemia

21:54 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Hypercalcemia?

It is a condition in which the blood has excessive levels of calcium, which can cause kidney stones, bones to weaken, and the brain and heart to be affected. Hypercalcemia can be due to different reasons, such as:
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Sarcoidosis.
  • Breast and lung cancer or bone metastases.
  • Severe dehydration.
  • Diseases, such as tuberculosis.
  • Drugs, such as lithium.
  • Sedentary lifestyle due to a disease that forces you not to move.
  • Overuse of calcium or vitamin D supplements.
  • Genetic disorders.

Symptoms

Mild hypercalcemia may not cause symptoms, but severe hypercalcemia may include:
  • Arrhythmia and cardiac disorders.
  • Confusion, depression, lethargy, and fatigue.
  • Weakness.
  • Bone and muscle pain.
  • Headache.
  • Constipation, abdominal pain.
  • Excessive thirst and frequent urination.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea.
  • Vomit.
Possible complications of hypercalcemia not treated promptly are:
  • Arrhythmia.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Kidney failure.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Damage to the nervous system.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once your doctor analyzes your symptoms and clinical history, they will perform a physical examination and request a complete blood test to determine your blood calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. If they suspect that the hypercalcemia may be due to a disease, such as cancer, they may need imaging studies to assess your bones, lungs, and kidneys. The treatment plan will be established based on the hypercalcemia cause and its severity. In severe cases, they may suggest a surgical procedure to remove the tissue causing the condition or the use of certain medications, such as:
  • Bisphosphonates.
  • Calcitonin.
  • Calcimimetics.
  • Diuretic.
  • Steroids.
At ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • hormone.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • mayoclinic.org
  • msdmanuals.com
  • cancer.net
  • medigraphic.com
  • Andrade-Castellanos CA, Novas-Rojas Y, Gutiérrez-Ramírez FJ. Osteólisis aguda secundaria a hipercalcemia de origen tumoral. Med Int Mex. 2021;37(6):1103-1107.
  • Baraquiso PM, Corella SAJ. Abordaje moderno del hiperparatiroidismo primario. Revista Médica Sinergia. 2021;6(04):1-13.
  • Reyes-Tobar P, Altamirano-Assad R, Osses-Donoso L, et al. Tumor de células pequeñas del ovario del subtipo hipercalcémico: reporte de un caso. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2021;89(01):84-89.
  • Moreno-Galeana S, Guerrero-Espinosa D. Hiperparatiroidismo primario debido a una glándula paratiroidea gigante. Otorrinolaringología. 2021;66(3):245-252.

						
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