Hyponatremia

21:54 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Hyponatremia?

It is a condition in which sodium blood levels decrease considerably, affecting the presence of water in the cells, which may be due to excessive water intake that causes this electrolyte to be diluted and lost through urine, increasing the amount of water in your body and causing cellular inflammation, which can lead to various complications, which, eventually, can endanger your life. Sodium is a transcendental mineral in the body since it regulates its water balance, keeps blood pressure at optimal levels, and contributes to proper muscle and nerve function. There are several conditions and habits that can cause hyponatremia, including:
  • Excessive water intake.
  • Hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism or Addison's disease.
  • Drugs like ecstasy.
  • Diuretic.
  • Painkillers.
  • Antidepressants.
  • Heart conditions.
  • Kidney ailments.
  • Liver dysfunctions.
  • Abnormal secretion of antidiuretic hormone syndrome.
  • Dehydration due to diarrhea or vomiting.

Symptoms

  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomit.
  • Headache.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Somnolescence.
  • Fatigue.
  • Weakness.
  • Anxiety.
  • Irritability.
  • Spasms and muscle cramps.
  • Seizures.
If you have any of these symptoms, go immediately to the ABC Medical Center Emergency Room. The possible complications of hyponatremia depend on its magnitude, so if it is chronic, the sodium level decreases progressively in one or two days, causing milder symptoms and moderate risk; but if it is an acute episode, where the level drops sharply in a short time, serious symptoms may appear in which the brain swells, producing a coma with fatal consequences.

Diagnosis and treatment

Through a blood and urine test, your doctor can diagnose hyponatremia, directing treatment to increase sodium levels in the body, and promoting an electrolyte balance through intravenous fluids and medications to control the symptom. In addition, you will receive specific therapy if you have been diagnosed with an underlying disease that caused hyponatremia. At ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • topdoctors.es
  • medlineplus.gov
  • mayoclinic.org
  • msdmanuals.com
  • cun.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • Meraz MA, Zúñiga VJ, Steta OJM. Hiponatremia por cerebro perdedor de sal asociado a antidiuresis inapropiada. An Med Asoc Med Hosp ABC. 2018;63(1):68-72.
  • Carbajal-Rodríguez L, Reynes-Manzur JN, Zarco-Román J, et al. Síndrome cerebral perdedor de sal como diagnóstico diferencial del síndrome de secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética. Informe de un caso. Rev Mex Pediatr. 2000;67(3):128-132.
  • Ledesma CL, Sánchez DJS, Peniche MKG, et al. Hiponatremia y lesión pulmonar: ¿una asociación peligrosa en SARS-CoV-2?. Med Crit. 2021;35(4):172-175. doi:10.35366/101154.
  • Núñez CEE, Ramírez RA, Moreno GL. Síndrome de desmielinización osmótica. Presentación de un caso y revisión de tema. Medicina & Laboratorio. 2013;19(11-12):577-589.

						
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