ABC Medical Center > Padecimientos > Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma

21:55 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Multiple myeloma?

It is a type of blood cancer that develops in the plasma cells, which are responsible for producing antibodies to fight any infection. However, in this case, cancer cells accumulate in the bone marrow, displacing healthy cells that begin to create abnormal proteins that can cause various complications, such as kidney damage. Until now, the cause of the appearance of multiple myeloma is unknown, but it has been identified that this type of cancer develops with the presence of abnormal blood cells in the bone marrow that grow rapidly and without control, affecting various organs, including the bones. Multiple myeloma usually begins as a condition called monoclonal gammopathy, also characterized by the presence of abnormal blood cells, but in this case, the protein levels are not as high, so the organs are not affected. Several factors can increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma, such as:
  • Family members who have suffered from it.
  • Having or having had monoclonal gammopathy.
  • Being an older adult.
  • Being male.

Symptoms

Symptoms are variable and at the beginning of the disease there may be no symptoms, but the most frequent consist of:
  • Decreased body weight.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Stiffness and weakness of the lower limbs.
  • Aching bones.
  • Constipation.
  • Recurrent infections.
  • Nausea.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Feeling of extreme thirst.
Among the complications that can result from multiple myeloma are:
  • Anemia.
  • Kidney failure.
  • Recurrent infections.
  • Bone damage.

Diagnosis and treatment

To detect multiple myeloma, your doctor, in addition to performing a physical examination and checking your medical history, will request blood and urine tests, as well as the following tests:
  • Bone marrow exam.
  • X-rays.
  • MRI.
  • Computed tomography.
  • Positron emission tomography.
Depending on the degree of progress, the oncologist will determine the treatment to follow, but in cases of a certain severity, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and bone marrow transplant will be included. Since its opening in 2009, our Cancer Center offers chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments at the level of the best medical centers in the world through a comprehensive care model for cancer patients.

Fuentes:

  • cancer.org
  • cancer.net
  • cancer.gov
  • mayoclinic.org
  • msdmanuals.com
  • medigraphic.com
  • López-Lievanos MÁ, Mendoza-Gómez JL, Albarrán-Moreno M. Mieloma múltiple y COVID-19. Med Int Mex. 2021;37(3):448-453.
  • Fernández-Vargas OE, Ron-Magaña AL, Barrera-Chairez E, et al. Mantenimiento con lenalidomida postrasplante autólogo de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas en pacientes mexicanos con mieloma múltiple. Rev Hematol Mex. 2020;21(3):129-135.
  • Pineda-Galindo LF, Moranchel-García L, Sánchez-Uribe M, et al. Púrpura de Henoch-Schönlein como manifestación inicial de mieloma múltiple. Med Int Mex. 2018;34(4):638-644.
  • Tarín-Arzaga LC. Identificando al precursor del mieloma múltiple. Rev Hematol Mex. 2020;21(2):73-75.

						
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