Nasal polyps

21:55 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Nasal polyps?

It is a respiratory condition in which benign painless soft masses develop in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses caused by recurrent inflammatory processes related to allergies, asthma, drugs, immune conditions, and infections. Nasal polyps regularly appear near the eyes, nose, and cheekbones, although they can develop anywhere in the nasal passages or sinuses. The reason why certain people have this pathology is unknown, but it is known that certain conditions favor its formation, such as:
  • Asthma.
  • Vitamin D deficiency.
  • Cystic fibrosis.
  • Recurrent and chronic sinus infections.
  • Hay fever.
  • Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).
  • Sinusitis.
  • Churg-Strauss syndrome, a pathology that inflames the blood vessels.

Symptoms

If the nasal polyps are small, there may be no symptoms, but if they are larger and block the nasal airway, they can cause: 
  • Nasal congestion.
  • Headache.
  • Sore upper teeth.
  • Frequent sneezing.
  • Nasal drip.
  • Forehead swelling.
  • Smell and taste impairment.
  • Runny nose.
  • Snoring.
  • Runny nasal mucus
Potential risks: Although nasal polyps are not cancerous, they can cause: 
  • Obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Blockage of the nasal passages.
  • Asthmatic episodes.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Recurrent infections in the paranasal sinuses.
  • Loss of smell.
  • Frequent nosebleeds.

Diagnosis and treatment

After knowing your symptoms and analyzing your medical history, your doctor will perform a physical examination and perform a nasal endoscopy to rule out any anatomical abnormality in the nose and know the state of your paranasal sinuses. If deemed necessary, they will request a computed tomography to observe the tissues and bones of the nose, the size, and location of the polyps in deeper areas of the paranasal sinuses, and assess the degree of inflammation. Likewise, they will perform a blood test and an allergy test through skin samples to analyze in the laboratory and identify the type of allergens that may be irritating. If required, you can also request an analysis to detect the presence of cystic fibrosis. The treatment to follow consists of trying to reduce the size of the nasal polyps by:
  • Antibiotics to treat chronic or recurrent infections.
  • Antihistamines.
  • Injectable, oral, and topical nasal corticosteroids.
  • Specialized drugs to reduce the volume of nasal polyps.
If drug treatment fails to shrink your nasal polyps, you may need laparoscopic surgery to remove them and correct sinus abnormalities. However, polyps can return even after successful surgery. Sometimes the senses of smell or taste do not improve. At ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • aaaai.org
  • mayoclinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • msdmanuals.com
  • cun.es
  • topdoctors.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • García JA, Carías A, Díaz V. Comportamiento clínico, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la rinosinusitis crónica polipoidea. Otorrinolaringología. 2020;65(4):161-167.
  • Cortés PJR, Gutiérrez ECA, Pineda CF, et al. Prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus en los pacientes con rinosinusitis crónica polipoidea. An Med Asoc Med Hosp ABC. 2019;64(4):277-280. doi:10.35366/BC194H.
  • Terán LM, Ledesma-Soto Y, Krengel S, et al. Eotaxinas en asma bronquial y poliposis nasal. Gac Med Mex. 2006;142(2):139-144.
  • Villagra SE, Rodríguez PMA, Montiel GE. Uso del navegador tridimensional en la cirugía endoscópica de la poliposis nasal. Otorrinolaringología. 2007;52(1):29-33.

						
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