Cytomegalovirus

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Cytomegalovirus?

It is a very common viral infection caused by cytomegalovirus, which does not usually cause symptoms in people with a healthy immune system, but if your defenses are weakened or you are pregnant, it can cause serious complications. The spread of the virus occurs through organic fluids such as saliva, blood, and urine, among others. It is common for a pregnant woman who acquires cytomegalovirus to transmit the infection to her baby, which represents risks to its health. Also, in individuals with a suppressed immune system due to illness or treatments such as chemotherapy or organ transplant, a cytomegalovirus infection can lead to death. There is no specific treatment for this condition, so therapy focuses on symptom control and preventing serious complications.

Symptoms

When the infection is congenital, babies are usually premature and have low weight, although sometimes they do not show symptoms until months or years later, and can develop hearing and vision problems, as well as slow growth. In other cases, the following symptoms are present from birth:
  • Jaundice.
  • Liver dysfunction and inflammation.
  • Reddish eruptions or skin spots.
  • Microencephaly.
  • Spleen swelling.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Seizures.
When there are patients with a weakened immune system, the virus causes the following dysfunctions:
  • Brain.
  • Visual.
  • Pulmonary.
  • Hepatic.
  • Intestinal.
  • Stomach.
In people with good health, symptoms do not usually manifest, but if they do, the following usually appear:
  • Tiredness.
  • High fever.
  • Sore throat.
  • Muscular discomfort.

Diagnosis and treatment

Cytomegalovirus infection can be identified in pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals through blood and urine tests. In the case of fetuses, it is necessary to perform an amniocentesis, so that, through a sample of the amniotic fluid, it is determined if there is an infection. If the diagnosis is confirmed, a series of tests of different organs will be required to establish the damage’s magnitude. Normally, infants and adults with a strong immune system do not require any treatment, but in the case of infants and immunosuppressed individuals, therapy is established according to the severity of the infection, the magnitude of the symptoms, and the degree of involvement in specific organs, determining that the use of antivirals are the primary medications that must be prescribed. At ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • cdc.gov
  • mayoclinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • healthline.com
  • topdoctors.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • Barba EJR. Prevalencia de citomegalovirus en donantes de sangre. Rev Mex Patol Clin Med Lab. 2019;66(4):187-192.
  • Adams VY, Castillo GD. Trombocitopenia inmune primaria e infección por citomegalovirus y Epstein Barr virus: autoinmunidad versus inmunosupresión. Rev Cubana Hematol Inmunol Hemoter . 2019;35(2):1-13.
  • Gutiérrez SM, Rodríguez CE, Pérez ZAI, et al. Perforación intestinal por citomegalovirus durante un Síndrome de Reconstitución Inmune. Revista Cubana de Cirugía. 2019;58(4):1-7.
  • Carrillo ER. Reactivación de citomegalovirus en el enfermo grave internado en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva. Gac Med Mex. 2011;147(2):159-162.

						
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