Hypotension

21:56 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Hypotension?

It is a disease in which there is a persistent decrease in blood pressure levels, which can put the person's life at risk, since the heart, by pumping blood at a slower rate than usual, prevents vital organs, such as the brain, from receiving the blood flow necessary for the proper performance of their functions. Low blood pressure or hypotension is classified in:
  • Postural hypotension: caused by a sudden change in body posture, causing a drop in pressure that usually lasts a few seconds.
  • Postprandial postural hypotension: it occurs after eating, especially in the elderly.
  • Neurally mediated: produced by a lack of coordination between the pumping of the heart and the brain when standing for long periods, which causes sudden drops in blood pressure, usually in children and young people.
  • Severe: caused by sudden blood loss, an infection, or serious allergic reaction, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, or the ingestion of some drugs, among others.
Although people of any age and gender can develop hypotension, there are potential risks that can contribute to its onset, such as:
  • Dehydration
  • Age.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Consumption of some medications, especially those for hypertension.
  • Vitamin B-12 and iron deficiency. 
  • Septicemia.
  • Severe bleeding.
  • Presence of some conditions, such as diabetes or Parkinson's disease.
  • Cardiac or endocrine conditions.
  • Anaphylaxis (extremely severe allergic reaction).

Symptoms

Common symptoms include:
  • Tiredness and weakness.
  • Lack of focus and confusion.
  • Dizziness and nausea.
  • Blurred view.
  • Faints.
In serious cases you can go into shock:
  • Lack of mental clarity, especially in older adults.
  • Pale, cold, and sweaty skin. 
  • Shallow, heavy breathing.
  • Weakness and rapid pulse.
If you have symptoms of a sudden drop in blood pressure, it is recommended that you lie down immediately and raise your feet above your heart. If symptoms persist, see a doctor as soon as possible, thus avoiding possible complications. In case of severe symptoms, go immediately to the Emergency Room of ABC Medical Center. 

Diagnosis and treatment

To establish a diagnosis, it is necessary to find the cause of your low blood pressure. So your doctor, in addition to reviewing your symptoms and medical history, and performing a physical examination, will order laboratory tests and studies such as an electrocardiogram, tilt table test, and X-rays. The treatment will depend on the cause of your low blood pressure, but it may consist of increasing, reducing, or suspending the dose of certain medications. However, you can help normalize your blood pressure by modifying your habits to adopt a healthy lifestyle by:
  • Drinking more water.
  • Exercising.
  • Increasing your sodium intake, as long as your doctor recommends it.
  • Wearing compression stockings/socks to prevent blood from pooling in the legs. 
At the Cardiovascular Center we offer you a wide range of prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and follow-up services to take care of you through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary care model. Come to us, we want to hear your heart.

Fuentes:

  • texashaert.com
  • secardiologia.es
  • mayoclinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • msdmanuals.com
  • fundacionmexicanadelcorazón.org
  • medigraphic.org
  • Aparicio MAI, Rizo FY, Pineda GAR. Hipotensión controlada en cirugía espinal. Revista Cubana de Ortopedia y Traumatología. 2020;34(1):1-22.
  • Murillo-Godínez G. Hipotensión arterial sistémica “esencial”. Med Int Mex. 2020;36(4):550-556.
  • Gaytán-Fernández B. Riesgos y complicaciones durante la sedación para endoscopía diagnóstica del tubo digestivo sin enfermedad concomitante. Rev Mex Anest. 2021;44(3):200-206. doi:10.35366/99667.
  • Molina CD, Campos QM, Núñez GA. Síncope: generalidades. Revista Médica Sinergia. 2020;5(05):478-478.

						
The dissemination of the content of this material is for informational purposes only and does not replace, under any circumstance or condition, a consultation with a specialist doctor, for which the ABC Medical Center is not responsible for the different use that may be given to it. If you require more information related to the subject, we suggest you contact the specialist doctor you trust directly.