Acute myocardial infarction carries a high mortality, so it is urgent to treat it. It occurs due to sudden obstruction of the passage of blood through a coronary artery.
Normally, a myocardial infarction is due to the progressive development in the obstruction of the coronary arteries with atheromatous plaque (cholesterol). Upon sudden rupture of one of these plaques, a small clot, known as a thrombus, is created on the surface. The thrombus completely obstructs the passage of blood in the artery, resulting in a lack of irrigation and subsequent death of an area of the heart.
Different cardiovascular risk factors can influence the development of arteriosclerosis:
- Old age.
- High blood pressure.
- HDL (Low good cholesterol).
- LDL (High bad cholesterol).
- Being a man.
Also, to a lesser extent, myocardial infarctions may occur as a consequence of coronary arteries infection, vasculitis, cocaine use, and heart trauma, among others.
Acute myocardial infarction diagnosis
In general, the first signs of an acute myocardial infarction are detected by pain at the heart level, nausea, sweating, vomiting, general discomfort, or paleness. Other symptoms that may occur are pain that extends to the jaw, shoulder, or left arm; sometimes the patient may have felt a similar but less intense pain in the previous days.
It will be necessary to perform the following tests when the patient has symptoms suggesting an acute myocardial infarction:
- Electrocardiogram. Test that allows detecting if you are suffering a heart attack by recording the heart’s electrical activity. Also, alterations can be detected to classify it as a heart attack with or without ST-segment elevation.
- Blood test. They show an increase in CPK-MB enzyme and troponin concentration, substances that come from the heart and that rise when there is damage to cardiac cells.
- MRI. Resonance performed at rest for questionable cases.
Although heart attacks are not necessarily hereditary, there may be a greater predisposition if a first-degree relative has suffered one.
A healthy diet, frequent physical exercise, keeping a weight close to the ideal, and avoiding smoking are some measures that help reduce the risk of having a heart attack.
What is the AMI code?
The ABC Medical Center follows a rigorous heart attack care protocol (AMI Code) to restore blood flow in less than 60 minutes, and maximum of 120 minutes, thus reducing mortality, hospitalization time, and the possibility of complications.
Upon your arrival at ABC Medical Center’s Emergency Room, a timely diagnosis will be made and treatment will be offered as quickly as possible. To achieve this, the following procedure will be followed:
- Performing an electrocardiogram.
- Taking laboratory samples to look for enzymes or cardiac proteins.
- Placement of an intravenous catheter for medications, such as nitroglycerin or morphine.
- Administration of medications according to medical indications, to prevent the formation of new blood clots.
- Cardiac catheterization for dye injection and identification of occlusions or narrowing in the blood vessels.
- If necessary, percutaneous coronary intervention, also known as stenting, will be performed to open the affected artery.
After emergency treatment, the patient must be hospitalized for cardiovascular surveillance and monitoring, to assess each case individually, and consider cardiac risk, comorbidities, functional status, and the patient’s social support.
If you want to know more, come to the ABC Medical Center, its Cardiovascular Center specialists provide care under the best medical practices based on scientific evidence and the highest quality and safety standards.