Anaphylaxis

19:50 - 26 July , 2022

Disease

What is Anaphylaxis?

It is an extremely serious condition caused by an allergenic agent that activates the immune system, generating an excessive, rapid, and sudden allergic reaction that, if not treated properly and immediately, can be lethal.

When the body is exposed to the substance that causes the allergy, the immune system attacks, producing a series of chemical reactions that cause a significant drop in blood pressure and closure of the airways, causing shock.

Typically, anaphylaxis arises from an allergic reaction to drugs, food, drinks, insect bites, or chemicals; and when it appears, it is a medical emergency that requires immediate medical attention.

Symptoms

Generally, symptoms appear within a few minutes after the presence of the allergenic agent, although sometimes it can appear after 40 minutes or a few hours, with symptoms such as:

  • Itch.
  • Rash.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Dizziness.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Reddish or pale skin color.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Breathing problems due to closure of the airways.
  • Swelling of the face, tongue, and throat.
  • Weakening and rapid pulse.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomit.

If you or a family member or friend experiences a serious allergic reaction, you must go immediately to the ABC Medical Center Emergency Room. Potential risks:

  • Having had a previous anaphylactic episode.
  • History of allergies.
  • Asthma.
  • Pre-existing heart conditions

Diagnosis and treatment

Once the anaphylaxis has been controlled, the doctor will analyze your symptoms and clinical history, in addition to performing a blood test to identify the levels of tryptase after the anaphylactic episode, as well as a thorough examination to detect the allergens to which you are sensitive.

When you are suffering from an anaphylactic event, the immediate treatment is:

  • Epinephrine shot.
  • Oxygen administration.
  • Medications such as antihistamines and intravenous corticosteroids.

Once the allergens that trigger anaphylaxis are known, prevention consists of avoiding them and always carrying an epinephrine auto-injector with you in case of an allergic event.

In the event of a possible anaphylactic shock, remember to go to ABC Medical Center Emergency Room to receive immediate medical attention and save your life or that of your loved ones.

Fuentes

  • topdoctors.es
  • msdmanuals.com
  • mayoclinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • healthline.com
  • medigraphic.com
  • Hines CKD, Zumbado VR. Anafilaxia en pediatría. Revista Médica Sinergia. 2021;6(02):1-13.
  • Dávila CE. Reacciones anafilácticas ante agentes anestésicos. Medisur. 2019;17(2):248-253.
  • Sienra-Monge JJL, Navarrete-Rodríguez EM, Chávez-Flores U, et al. Anafilaxia en niños y adultos: prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Rev CONAMED. 2019;24(3):107-164.
  • Muro CER, Rodríguez GM, Huerta LJG. Manejo y prevención de la anafilaxia. Alerg Asma Inmunol Pediatr. 2019;28(1):18-25

						
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