Seizures

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Seizures?

They arise suddenly due to an electrical alteration of the brain that can trigger changes in consciousness, emotions, behavior, and uncontrolled movements.

In general, convulsive episodes last from 40 seconds to three minutes, but if the duration is longer or there are several episodes a day, we are talking about a medical emergency.

Seizures are a common condition that arises for a variety of reasons, including epilepsy, brain injury, head trauma, meningitis, abnormal blood vessels in the brain, high fever, lack of sleep, low blood sodium, taking certain drugs, strokes, drug use, alcohol abuse, brain tumors, and COVID-19.

It is important to point out that not all seizures generate rapid and uncontrolled jerks in the body as is believed since there are different types of seizures with different signs and symptoms that depend on the brain region in which they start and their extension.

They are usually classified into two main groups:

  • Focused or partial, with or without loss of consciousness: they occur in one part of the brain.
  • Generalized: Abnormal activity on both sides of the brain, which includes.
  • Absence: they last a few seconds but can happen many times a day.
  • Tonic: cause numbness and stiffness in the muscles, causing falls and loss of consciousness.
  • Atonic: lack of muscle control.
  • Clonic: muscle spasms in the face and neck.
  • Myoclonic: spasms in the upper and lower limbs.
  • Tonic-clonic: intense epileptic seizures that last minutes, causing loss of consciousness, muscle rigidity and spasms, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting.

Symptoms

Symptoms depend on the type and severity of the seizure, but the most common symptoms include:

  • Mental disorder and confusion.
  • Absence crisis.
  • Spasms in the upper and lower limbs.
  • Fainting.
  • Anxiety.
  • Fear.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once your doctor analyzes your symptoms and medical history, he or she will perform a physical and neurological examination, as well as order blood and diagnostic tests, such as electroencephalogram, computed tomography, MRI, positron emission tomography, and lumbar puncture.

Treatment focuses on controlling seizures through the administration of anti-seizure medications that best suit your case and with the fewest side effects.

For which, you will probably have to try different drugs until you find the right one for you based on the frequency of your seizures, age, and the affected brain area. In addition to medications, your doctor may recommend a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.

If deemed necessary, he or she will perform surgery, especially if the seizures occur in the same brain area. Other alternative procedures consisting of vagal nerve stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, or deep brain stimulation may also be used.

At the Neurological Center, a select group of highly trained and certified doctors in the various neurological specialties are ready to assist you with the quality and warmth that characterizes us. 

Nervous system specialties 

  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Spine surgery
  • Pediatric neurosurgery
  • Neurophysiology
  • Neuro-rehabilitation
  • Neuro-pathology
  • Interventional neuro-radiology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Neuro-oncology
  • Neuro-otology
  • Epilepsy
  • Neuro-ophthalmology
  • Neuroimaging

Fuentes:

  • fesemi.org
  • cdc.gov
  • mayocilinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • msdmanuals.com
  • topdoctors.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • Vega CR. Diagnóstico etiológico de síncope convulsivo debido a una aurícula izquierda grande. Rev Cub Med Int Emerg. 2020;19(3):1-3.
  • Montoya AP, Murillo AK, Morales FM. Trombosis de los senos venosos. Revista Médica Sinergia. 2021;6(05):1-11.
  • Naj IM. Atención de la epilepsia de clase mundial en el corazón de México. An Med Asoc Med Hosp ABC. 2020;65(3):172-173. doi:10.35366/95672.
  • Urquiza CF, Hernández-Pacheco JA. Estudios de imagen cerebral en el diagnóstico diferencial de enfermedades hipertensivas del embarazo y convulsiones. Reporte de dos casos. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2020;88(04):261-270.

						
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