Vaccines build long-lasting, active immunity against disease by helping the body’s ability to fight a virus. There may be cases in which the vaccine does not prevent you from contracting the COVID-19 virus. However, if you do catch it, the vaccine could keep you from getting seriously ill or prevent complications.
Reasons to get vaccinated against COVID-19
- It helps you build immunity against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
- The vaccine could keep you from getting seriously ill, prevent complications, or die from the disease.
- While each vaccine works differently, all COVID-19 vaccines elicit an immune response so your body remembers how to fight the virus in the future.
- Prevent the virus that causes COVID-19 from spreading and replicating, contributing to herd immunity.
COVID-19 Vaccine Dose
Learn why the COVID-19 vaccine is applied in one or two doses and what is the official recommendation for its application, combining, or not combining the different vaccines.
How do COVID-19 vaccines work?
Any vaccine is intended to generate immunity against a disease by producing antibodies that activate the body’s natural defenses, strengthening the immune system.
The main types of COVID-19 vaccines that are currently available or in large-scale clinical trials include the following:
Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine.
This vaccine cannot cause an infectious disease such as COVID-19 since it does not contain the live virus that causes COVID-19.
Viral vector vaccines cannot get you infected with the COVID-19 virus or the viral vector virus. In turn, the genetic material they provide does not become part of your DNA.
Protein subunit vaccines.
COVID-19 variants, do vaccines work for the new variants?
When a virus has one or more mutations they are called ``variants`` of the original virus. Some of the worrying variants of COVID-19 are Alpha. (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2).
Vaccines against COVID-19 continue to be effective with severe and mild forms, although they decrease by a certain percentage. Remember that receiving a dose does not grant immediate immunity, be cautious and comply with the complete vaccination schedule.
Differences between variants and the original virus of COVID-19
Increased virulence or change in the clinical presentation
of the disease.
Decreased effectiveness of available vaccines and treatments
Original Virus (SARS-CoV-2)
A sick person can infect up to 2 people.
A sick person can infect up to 4 people.
A sick person can infect up to 9 people.
Increase in transmissibility.
Increased virulence or change in the clinical presentation of the disease.
Decreased effectiveness of available vaccines and treatments.
Increase in transmissibility.
6 precautions against COVID-19 variants
Keep a distance of 1.5 meters
Perform hand hygiene on an ongoing basis.
Continue to use facemasks of at least triple layer quality
Keep the windows open
Get vaccinated when it’s your turn
Coughs and sneezes with the upper arm even with a mask
Frequently asked questions about vaccination
- The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is 95% effective after the second dose in preventing symptomatic COVID-19. This vaccine is for people over 16 years old. It is made up of two doses that are applied 21 days apart.
- The Moderna vaccine is 94.5% effective after the second dose in preventing symptomatic COVID-19. This vaccine is for people over 18 years old. It is made up of two doses that are applied 28 days apart.
- The Janssen/Johnson & Johnson vaccine is 66% effective after the first dose in preventing symptomatic COVID-19. This vaccine is for people over 18 years old. It is made up of one dose.
- The AstraZeneca and Oxford University vaccine is 63% effective after the second dose in preventing symptomatic COVID-19. This vaccine is for people over 18 years old. It is made up of two doses that are applied 21 days apart.
- The Sputnik V vaccine is 92.0% effective after the second dose in preventing symptomatic COVID-19. This vaccine is for people over 18 years old. It is made up of two doses that are applied 21 days apart.
- Pain, redness, or swelling where the injection was given
- Muscle pain
- Joint pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- General discomfort
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Constant wheezing or shortness of breath.
- Swelling of the lips, eyes, or tongue.
- Redness, swelling, or itching in areas of the body other than the arm where the vaccine was given.
- If you have signs of an allergic reaction, seek care immediately.
- Inform your doctor about the reaction, even if it is gone or you didn't need emergency care.
- People over 75 years old
- Poorly controlled diabetics
- Poorly controlled hypertensive patient
- Heart disease
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Emphysema (COPE)
- Immunosuppression Diseases
- People with obesity
- To meet other fully vaccinated people two weeks after the second dose indoors, without wearing masks and without avoiding close contact.
- However, vaccinated people should continue to take safety precautions, such as wearing a mask and avoiding close contact with others (approximately 2 meters), when they are:
- In public
- Gathered with people who are not vaccinated and are at a higher risk of serious illness from COVID-19
- Gathered with people living with someone who is not vaccinated and is at a higher risk of serious illness from COVID-19
- Gathered with unvaccinated people living in different households