Aplastic anemia

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Aplastic anemia?

It is a blood condition in which the body has a dysfunction that prevents blood cells (platelets, red and white blood cells) from being produced in the bone marrow, due to an abnormality in stem or hematopoietic cells, causing extreme tiredness and increasing your chances of getting infections and bleeding out of control. The term aplastic indicates a lack or depletion of stem cells in the bone marrow, being a rare serious disorder that can occur suddenly or progressively in people of all ages, temporarily or chronically. The origin of this disease is the immune system attack on stem cells, although there are some other elements that can cause it, such as:
  • Toxic chemicals.
  • Certain drugs such as antibiotics and arthritis medications.
  • Autoimmune disorders.
  • Viral infections.
  • Radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Pregnancy.
Aplastic anemia can be treated with drugs, blood transfusions, or healthy bone marrow transplant from a compatible donor.

Symptoms

Sometimes, when there is not a complete bone marrow blood cells depletion, aplastic anemia may not cause symptoms, but when it does, the following occur:
  • Rash.
  • Dizziness.
  • Headache.
  • High fever.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Rapid heart rate.
  • Paleness.
  • Recurrent infectious processes.
  • Unjustified presence of bruises.
  • Periodontal and nasal bleeding.
  • Wound healing problems.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once your doctor analyzes your symptoms and clinical history, he or she will perform a physical examination and request a complete blood test to determine your blood cell levels. In addition, to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible conditions, he or she will take a biopsy of your bone marrow. When the diagnosis is confirmed, you will be asked for additional tests to identify the direct cause of aplastic anemia and act accordingly. The treatment plan will be established based on the severity of the case, the symptoms, age, and general health, but it usually includes pharmacological therapy, blood transfusions, and bone marrow transplant in the most serious cases. This last procedure, in addition to involving an extended stay in the hospital, represents a series of important risks, since immunosuppressive drugs are administered to weaken the immune system, which causes a propensity to develop recurrent infections. At ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • medlineplus.gov
  • mayoclinic.org
  • msdmanuals.com
  • cun.es
  • topdoctors.es
  • medigraphic.com
  • Aspergilosis etmoidomaxilar en una paciente con anemia aplásica. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura. Rev Latin Infect Pediatr. 2013;26.27(103):.
  • Carrillo ER, Martínez LJF, Mendoza GJG. Infección de tejidos blandos por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia en un paciente con anemia aplásica. Med Int Mex. 2012;28(6):621-625.
  • Ferrer-Argote VE, Mendoza-García E, García-García JJ, et al. Frecuencia de hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna en pacientes mexicanos con anemia aplásica tratados con andrógenos. Rev Med Hosp Gen Mex. 2008;71(3):137-140.
  • Benítez-Aranda H, Góngora-Biachi RA, Morales-Polanco MR. Síndromes de falla medularI. IntroducciónII. Diagnóstico y clasificación de la hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturnaIII. Actualidades en el tratamiento de la anemia aplásica en niñosIV. Tratamiento de la anemia aplásica en pacientes adultos. Gac Med Mex. 2002;138(Suppl: 1):19-25.

						
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