Brucellosis

21:53 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Brucellosis?

This condition is caused by an infection of the Brucella bacteria that affects animals, especially cows, pigs, dogs, goats, and sheep. It spreads to humans by direct contact or by eating contaminated animal products, the most common being unpasteurized dairy, although sometimes the infection can spread by breathing the bacteria.  The treatment indicated for this condition is taking antibiotics for an extended period since the infection is usually recurrent. The most frequent contagion mechanisms are: 
  • Contact with organic fluids from animals with brucellosis. 
  • Consume unpasteurized or raw dairy products, as well as undercooked meat. 
  • Breathing air contaminated with the bacteria. 
This infection can hardly be spread between humans, but there have been occasions in which the mother transmits it to the baby at birth or by breastfeeding, as well as through blood transfusions, bone marrow, and sexual intercourse. 

Symptoms

There is no specific time for symptoms to appear, sometimes it does in a few days or it can take months to show up. But it usually includes the following symptoms:
  • Headache.
  • Pain in the back, joints, and muscles.
  • High fever and chills.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Tiredness and weakness.
When you suffer from chronic brucellosis, the symptoms manifest for years despite receiving treatment, causing serious complications such as:
  • Endocarditis.
  • Arthritis. 
  • Epididymo-orchitis. 
  • Hepatitis.
  • Splenomegaly.
  • Meningitis and encephalitis.

Diagnosis and treatment

Once your doctor reviews your symptoms and medical history, he or she will perform a physical examination and order blood tests or a cerebrospinal fluid culture to find the bacteria. Additional tests will be requested if he or she suspects complications, such as:
  • Cardiac ultrasound.
  • X-rays.
  • Computed tomography.
  • MRI. 
The treatment plan focuses on suppressing symptoms, avoiding recurrence, and preventing serious complications, so it is based on the intake of antibiotics for several months, which does not guarantee that the infection will disappear, so it can be recurrent and become a chronic condition. In ABC Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Department, we offer health care services with the highest quality and safety, from the prevention, diagnosis, timely treatment, and monitoring of infectious, respiratory, endocrinological, dermatological, rheumatic, nephrological, gastrointestinal, and hematological pathologies of both chronic-degenerative diseases and acute conditions, through a comprehensive and multidisciplinary model.

Fuentes:

  • mayoclinic.org
  • medlineplus.gov
  • cun.es
  • topdoctors.es
  • who.int
  • medigraphic.com
  • Gómez-Ruíz J, Dalton-Ceballos K, Cruz-Cruz NR, et al. Neurobrucelosis: hallazgos por resonancia magnética. Arch Neurocien. 2017;22(4):62-69.
  • Cervera-Hernández ME, Ordaz-Vázquez A, Torres-González P, et al. Seroprevalencia de brucelosis entre trabajadores de una cuenca lechera en México. salud publica mex. 2016;58(3):366-370.
  • Muñiz-Suárez L, Hijazo-Gascón D, Asensio-Matas A, et al. Bruceloma Renal: A propósito de un caso. Rev Mex Urol. 2020;80(4):1-5.
  • Martínez RA, Ortega SJL, Cervantes FM, et al. Contaminación por Brucella sp. e incumplimiento en medidas de saneamiento básico en la producción de lácteos. Enf Infec Microbiol. 2017;37(4):128-132.
The dissemination of the content of this material is for informational purposes only and does not replace, under any circumstance or condition, a consultation with a specialist doctor, for which the ABC Medical Center is not responsible for the different use that may be given to it. If you require more information related to the subject, we suggest you contact the specialist doctor you trust directly.