Hemangioma

21:54 - 4 May , 2021

Disease

What is Hemangioma?

It is a benign tumor also known as a red birthmark, caused by an anomaly in blood vessel development. Although it is likely to occur in all body areas, they usually appear on the neck, face, chest, back, and around the eyes of newborns, although it is also possible that they manifest during the first year of life. Types of hemangioma:
  • Capillary: located in the epidermis.
  • Cavernous: appears in the dermis.
When hemangiomas appear near the eyes, they often affect eye development, causing vision conditions such as glaucoma and amblyopia, or damage the optic nerve, causing blindness. Many of these malformations, whose cause is unknown, but are believed to be due to abnormalities in placental proteins, progressively disappear over the years, so more than 90% of them vanish before reaching the age of 10. Hemangiomas most often attack white premature female babies. One or several reddish bumps appear that grow rapidly over a few months, increasing in volume and height until they form a resin-like mound that rises above the skin. Reaching the aforementioned point, it stops growing and begins to gradually decrease in volume over the years until it completely disappears between the ages of five and 10, leaving a depigmented mark with a certain elevation. As possible complications, a hemangioma may rupture, causing bleeding, pain, and infection, and forming a sore that will leave scar tissue in the affected area. Depending on where it is located, the hemangioma is capable of causing visual, auditory, or respiratory dysfunctions. For this reason, it is important that your child's doctor periodically review its evolution to prevent serious complications.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis is normally easy, since with simple observation it is possible to know if it is a hemangioma, so additional studies are not required. The treatment to be followed will depend on the size, location, and magnitude of the hemangioma, but in severe cases, especially ocular malformations, the following therapies are used:
  • Beta-blockers: They are used in oral or gel presentations for the treatment of small epidermal hemangiomas. Adverse reactions can be noises and wheezes when breathing, arterial hypotension, and hyperglycemia.
  • Corticosteroids: It is an option when there is no positive response to treatment with beta-blockers, and it can be applied topically or through direct injections. Possible reactions may be hindering proper development and skin fragility.
  • Surgery: When drugs don't work, laser surgery is a viable alternative to remove the hemangioma or repair sores from a ruptured hemangioma.
Despite its unpleasant appearance, the vast majority of hemangiomas fade without treatment over the years until they disappear, so choosing a drug or surgical treatment has its risks. Evaluate your child's case with your doctor and decide together which is the best option for your specific case. In our Pediatric Center, a team of highly trained specialists awaits you 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, ensuring optimal care and results by providing care based on clinical practice guidelines and international protocols.

Fuentes:

  • aao.org
  • mayoclinic.org.
  • aboutkidshealth.ca
  • medilineplus.gov
  • healthychildren.org
  • medigraphic.com
  • Chércoles CLE, Sánchez GD, Díaz SF. Hemangioma cavernoso. Revista Cubana de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular. 2021;22(1):1-10.
  • Quintero DZ, González VN, González LSL, et al. Uso del propranolol en hemangioma segmentario de la cara. A propósito de un caso. Medisur. 2020;18(5):919-923.
  • Macías-Fernández B, Giorgana-Frutos L, Guzmán-Romero AK. Hemangioma capilar lobular del cornete inferior. Otorrinolaringología. 2021;66(1):73-79.
  • Marino SJA, Gutiérrez SG, Fernández EJ, et al. Hemangioma capilar lobular nasal del cornete medio: una causa rara de epistaxis recurrente. An Med Asoc Med Hosp ABC. 2019;64(4):312-316. doi:10.35366/BC194N.

						

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