ABC Medical Center > Hemorrhoids

What is Hemorrhoids?

21:54 - 4 May , 2021


Popularly known as piles, they are a set of inflamed tissues and veins in the anus and lower rectum that contain blood vessels, connective tissue, muscle, and elastic fibers. They vary in size and can appear in the internal area of the rectum, being the so-called internal hemorrhoids, on the skin around the anus, classified as external hemorrhoids, or when an external hemorrhoid has a clot it is called a thrombosed hemorrhoid.

Risk factors:

  • Pregnancy and childbirth.
  • Obesity.
  • Chronic constipation or diarrhea.
  • Low fiber diet.
  • Excessive strain when defecating.
  • Genetics.
  • Have anal sex regularly.
  • Heavy lifting.
  • Sitting on the toilet for a long time.

Signs and symptoms Hemorrhoids

External hemorrhoids: 

  • Mild to severe pain or discomfort.
  • Anal swelling.
  • Itching and burning in the anus.
  • Bleeding.

Internal hemorrhoids: 

They usually do not show symptoms, however, they can cause:

  • Pain and irritation.
  • Painless bleeding when defecating, detecting a little blood in the toilet water or on the toilet paper.

Thrombosed hemorrhoids:

As blood collects in an external hemorrhoid, a clot or thrombus may form, which can lead to:

  • Sharp pain and swelling.
  • Formation of a very hard lump around the anus.

If not treated on time, hemorrhoids can become severe and lead to considerable diseases, such as anemia, anal fistula, fecal incontinence, inability to control defecation or infection.


Hemorrhoids are classified according to their development in four main phases:

  • Phase I: small inflammations within the wall of the anus that cannot be seen.
  • Phase II: larger swollen veins that can come out with the stool and come back in.
  • Stage III: prolapsed veins that protrude from the anus but are easily reinserted. 
  • Phase IV: their size is considerable and they are out of the anus all the time.

Potential risks:

With age, the risks of developing hemorrhoids are higher, due to the progressive wear and tear of the rectal and anal muscles, which can also occur in pregnancy due to the action of the baby’s weight on the anus muscles.

Diagnosis and treatment Hemorrhoids

To detect hemorrhoids, your doctor will perform a physical examination, digital rectal analysis, or use a proctoscope to view the anal region. They can take a small tissue sample to analyze in the laboratory and, if necessary, request a colonoscopy to rule out any disease of the digestive system or the possibility of developing colorectal cancer.

The initial treatment usually consists of changing habits, such as:

  • Go to the bathroom as soon as necessary and do not strain while you evacuate.
  • Avoid being overweight.
  • Avoid sitting for a long time, especially on the toilet.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Increase water intake.
  • Eat foods rich in fiber.

They will indicate surgery if considered necessary, the scope of which will depend on your case, the degree of affectation, and progress.

In our High Specialty Surgery Center, we perform more than 7,000 cutting-edge surgical procedures each year with state-of-the-art technology. Our mission is to provide you with general and highly specialized medical-surgical services with the highest standards of quality and safety comparable with international centers of excellence through a multidisciplinary team that uses evidence-based clinical protocols that guarantee the best assistance and care for your health.

ABC Medical Center has always been known for practicing cutting-edge medicine. Our commitment to innovation keeps us as leaders in the practice of this discipline.

Your next surgery in expert and certified hands.


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  • medigraphic.com
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  • Moreno BJM, Montes OZE, Mendoza RA, et al. Cirugía proctológica con láser, experiencia inicial en México. Cir Gen. 2017;39(2):66-73. doi:10.35366/76266. 
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