An allergy is defined as an alteration of the immune system that responds excessively in the presence of various substances called allergens, which are important to identify in order to avoid complications and be able to treat allergies.
Allergens can be present in food, pollen, animals, humidity, medicines, and dust, among others, causing allergies. The most common are:
- Allergic rhinitis: causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa and is considered a risk factor for asthma. It can trigger other diseases such as sinusitis, nasal polyposis, conjunctivitis, otitis, upper respiratory tract infections, mouth breathing, and sleep disorders.
- Allergic conjunctivitis: it can be mild or severe, such as allergic keratoconjunctivitis, which can cause permanent eye damage and even loss of vision.
- Asthma: is a disease caused by chronic inflammation of the airways which affects children and adults of all ages.
- Atopic eczema: it is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease.
- Food allergy: it is important to identify the responsible foods for its diagnosis.
- Urticaria and angioedema: It is a group of diseases characterized by hives.
- Allergy to drugs and biological agents: the most common adverse drug reactions include antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides, as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin.
- Insect allergies: may be limited to skin only (redness, hives, and angioedema) or, in severe cases, bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, and hypotension.
In autumn and winter, respiratory problems occupy the first place in the demand for medical services for both children and adults, however, the majority are allergies.
During cold periods, it is common to confuse respiratory diseases with allergies caused especially by the hair or dander of dogs and cats.
Unlike respiratory diseases, allergies will not trigger general discomfort such as a sore body, headache, or fever, because it is a multifactorial problem, which has a genetic component, that is, if a parent suffers from it, their children have more risk of developing it. When symptoms occur, it is recommended to perform skin tests to determine what the person is allergic to and have a treatment that will reduce the symptoms.
Allergies must be treated by a specialist to receive the appropriate medication, see your doctor.
With information from Secretaría de Salud.