What are movement disorders?

Movement disorders are a group of neurological diseases characterized by a decrease, loss, or exacerbation of body movements that severely affect the quality of life of patients who suffer from them.

Movement disorders are classified into: Hypokinetic and hyperkinetic.

  • Hypokinetic:

They are those disorders where movements are diminished.

a) Parkinson’s disease.

Between 5 and 10 percent of the population suffers from this disease worldwide.

It is characterized by slow movements, which can be accompanied by rigidity, tremor, and changes in posture and balance.

This disease is related to a decrease in brain chemicals (mainly dopamine) and its treatment is aimed at supplying this substance, and in some cases, optimizing the brain coordination system through brain surgery known as neuromodulation.

Parkinson’s is a chronic degenerative pathology that appears over time.

 

  • Hyperkinetic:

They are those disorders where mobility is increased

a) Essential tremor

It is the most common and usually progresses affecting the hands, head, and voice, with impaired functionality.

b) Dystonia

People with dystonia have involuntary muscle contractions that can often interfere with daily functions such as sleeping, walking, eating, and speaking. In them, one or several muscle groups’ posture is affected, causing deformities, pain, and severe functional alterations that can lead to total disability.

Focal dystonia is often successfully treated using botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, while general dystonia can be treated with deep brain stimulation.

c) Chorea

They are irregular involuntary movements that affect the limbs, the trunk, or the facial muscles. They can be genetic, as in the case of Huntington’s Disease or Wilson’s Disease, where several body areas are affected and are associated with early intellectual deterioration; or, focal chorea, related to stroke or diabetes complications.

d) Late dyskinesia

They often cause facial movements after exposure to psychiatric or gastrointestinal medications and can affect body image or function.

e) Myocloni, tics, and stereotypies

They are sudden, fast, and short-duration movements. They usually accompany various diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (in the case of myoclonus) or Tourette Syndrome (in the case of tics).

 

The ABC Neurology Center has the Parkinson’s and Other Movement Disorders Clinic. For information and appointments, contact us at 1103-1750 or by email at centroneurologico@abchospital.com