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Most common neurological disorders

15 July 2020


Key points:

  • The main risk factors for neurological disorders are related to genetics, age, and lifestyle.
  • Many of the conditions related to neurological disorders are related to numerous infections by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
  • Among the most common are epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, and stroke.

Neurological disorders are central and peripheral nervous system diseases, that is, they occur in the brain, spine, and multiple nerves that connect both.

Some of the most common are epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and other dementias, strokes, migraine and other headaches, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, neurological infections, brain tumors, traumatic conditions of the nervous system such as head injuries and disorders caused by malnutrition.

According to the WHO, hundreds of millions of people worldwide suffer from a neurological disorder. More than 6 million people die each year from stroke and more than 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

At least 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy and an estimated 47.5 million have dementia, with 7.7 million new cases diagnosed each year. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia and migraine is greater than 10% worldwide.

In addition to this, the nervous system can be affected by numerous bacterial infections such as tuberculosis and meningitis, viral infections such as HIV, enterovirus, West Nile virus, and Zika virus, fungal infections such as Cryptococcus, and parasitic infections such as malaria and Chagas disease.

Risk factors and prevention

Neurological diseases include genetics, age, tobacco, drugs and/or alcohol consumption, an unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity among their risk factors. In some cases, pollution and head injuries are also a major cause.
Remember that a healthy lifestyle will help you reduce the risk of suffering from one of these diseases, eating healthy, avoiding cigarettes, and leading an active life with frequent physical activity can work as preventive measures.


Although some of these diseases have no cure, some others can be controlled or, in their case, they can mitigate the symptoms with a timely diagnosis and adequate treatment.

At ABC Medical Center’s Neurology Center, we can provide you with specialized care. Contact us!

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